The Topic:
Mountains

Easier - A mountain is a large amount of land that rises high above its surroundings. It is a large, steep hill. A mountain range is a group of connected mountains.
 
Harder - A mountain towers above its neighboring landforms. Mountains are found all over the world, including in the ocean. The term mountain can refer to a single peak, a series of mountains called a mountain range, or a whole mountain system that encompasses a group of mountain ranges. Mountains usually have steep, sloping sides and sharp or slightly rounded ridges and peaks. Mountains are usually larger than hills. However, what some call a hill in one location may actually be larger than mountains somewhere else. For example in the United States, the Black Hills of South Dakota are higher than the Ouachita Mountains of Arkansas.
 
Many geologists specify that a mountain must include two or more zones of climate and plant life at different elevation levels. In most parts of the world, a mountain must reach 2,000 feet (600 meters) above its surroundings in order to include two climate zones.
 
International Year of Mountains 2002
http://www.mountains2002.org/
We are all mountain people. Whether we live at sea level or at the highest elevations, we are connected to mountains and are affected by mountains in more ways than we can imagine.
Related Websites:
2) International Year of Mountains (Links-site) http://www.teachers.ash.org.au/jmresources/mountains/year.html
3) Mountain from World Commission of Protected Areas
http://wcpa.iucn.org/biome/mountain/mountain.html
 
Mountain Building
http://volcano.und.nodak.edu/vwdocs/vwlessons/lessons/Ch1CMB/Content3.html
This site explains the ways that mountains are formed.
Related Websites:
2) Birth of the Himalaya http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/everest/earth/birth.html
3) Making Mountains http://www.ncaggregates.org/Lynn/mtn.html
4) Mountain Maker, Earth Shaker from PBS http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/aso/tryit/tectonics/
5) Subduction Zones and Orogeny http://www.uwgb.edu/dutchs/platetec/orogeny.htm
6) When Continents Collide http://www.clearlight.com/~mhieb/WVFossils/collision.html
7) Park Geology Tour of Mountain Building http://www2.nature.nps.gov/grd/tour/mountain.htm
 
Mountains from World Wide Fund for Nature
http://www.panda.org/kids/wildlife/mnmntain.htm
This site provides a brief introduction to mountains.
Related Websites:
2) Mountains from EcoSystems http://www.wsd1.org/LitOnline/ecosyste.htm#MOUNTAINS
3) Mountain Zones from Alien Explorer http://www.alienexplorer.com/ecology/e4.html
 
Peakware World Mountain Encyclopedia
http://www.peakware.com/encyclopedia/index.htm
This website aimed at rock climbers, mountaineers, hikers, and backpackers contains information about the mountain ranges of the world.
Not-To-Be-Missed Sections:
2) Highest Peaks http://www.peakware.com/encyclopedia/highest.htm
3) Peakware World Relief Maps http://www.peakware.com/encyclopedia/zoom.htm
Related Website:
4) Mountains on the Earth http://www.igf.fuw.edu.pl/hill/
  
After visiting several of the mountain websites, complete one or more of the following activities.
 
Collect Information About Mountain Living. Interview people who grew up or have lived in mountainous areas for a long time period. Create an article(s) about what you learn. Consider publishing the article, possibly on the Internet. You may find useful ideas at the following sites:
2) Foxfire Magazine http://www.foxfiremag.org/
3) Journal of the Mountain Laurel http://www.mtnlaurel.com/
4) Running River, The Virtual Ozarks http://www.runningriver.com/
 
Write A Mountain Poem. Create a poem that focuses on a mountain theme. If you want some more ideas for writing poetry, visit another 42eXplore project from eduScapes: Poetry for Kids.
 
Create A Mountain Banner. 2002 has been declared the United Nations International Year of Mountains (IYM), created to increase the awareness of the importance of mountain ecosystems. Create a banner that proclaims the observance.
 
Plan A Mountain Trip. Plan a summer trip to the mountains. You select the location. Then plan out a ten-day trip, including transportation, lodging, food . . . all of the schedule. Then develop an expense budget. Use spreadsheet software to detail you trip plans.
 
Compare And Contrast Two Different Mountain Ranges. Select two separate mountain groups. Then compare and contrast them. Consider their formation, age and evolution, climate, location, history, and plant and animal life. Share your research findings. An alternate activity would be to similarly compare and contrast three different mountain landforms: an individual mountain, a mountain range, and a mountain system.
 
Websites By Kids For Kids
Climbing Guide (1997 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge)
http://library.thinkquest.org/13779/guide/0/0.shtml
Do you have what it takes to scale a treacherous rock wall? Adventurers are invited to learn about training, techniques, and necessary equipment to take on the physical and mental challenge of the sport of rock climbing.
 
Everest, Crown of the World (1999 ThinkQuest Junior Project)
http://tqjunior.thinkquest.org/5069/
This site explores the mountain's climbing routes and tells cool facts about the peak. Try your hand at a word search or quiz, and learn about the science behind the mountain.
 
Mountain Formation by S. Bliss, Cooperstown Central School, NY
http://www2.oneonta.edu/~hessf77/mountain.html
Created by a high school Earth Science student, this site includes discussions on mountain formation, volcanoes, mountain chains, and related links for further study of particular ranges and volcanoes.
 
Mountains
http://www.brunswick.k12.me.us/bjh/stusites/mountains/home.html
This student database provides information about specific mountains and mountain ranges around the world.
 
Mountains from Save Our Earth and Make a Difference, 1997 ThinkQuest Internet Challenge
http://library.thinkquest.org/11353/mountain.htm
All mountain ecosystems have one major characteristic in common--rapid changes in altitude, climate, soil, and vegetation over very short distances.
 
Mount Everest (Grade 3)
http://www.newton.mec.edu/Angier/Ferguson/Everest/home.html
Learn about the mountain, its explorers, weather, and myths.
 
More Mountain Resources
Avalanche Safety from MountainZone
http://classic.mountainzone.com/features/avalanche/
Learn about the factors that result in avalanche accidents and what one can do.
Related Website:
2) Eight Steps to Reducing Your Avalanche Risk by K. Williams, Colorado Avalanche Information Center http://www.cmc.org/cmc/eightstp.html
 
Effects of Recreation on Rocky Mountain Wildlife: A Review for Montana from Montana Chapter of The Wildlife Society
http://www.montanatws.org/pages/page4.html
Each chapter of the report addresses a group of Montana wildlife species and includes guidelines and recommendations designed to minimize the effects of recreation on wildlife and wildlife habitats.
  
Mad About Mountains from A. Bowker
http://www.keswick.u-net.com/
Here you find some information on mountains and molehills around the world.
 
Mountain Institute
http://www.mountain.org/
Learn about this group that aims to promote mountain cultures and preserve mountain environments.
Related Websites:
3) International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development http://www.icimod.org.sg/
4) Mountain Voices http://www.mountainvoices.org/
 
Mountain Nature from Ward Cameron Enterprises
http://www.mountainnature.com/
Here you find information about common plants, animals and birds of the Rockies!
 
Mountain Sickness by C.C. Ray from New York Times Learning Network
http://www.nytimes.com/learning/students/scienceqa/archive/980127.html
This site explains what mountain or altitude sickness is and the ways to treat it.
Related Website:
2) Thin Air http://www.nytimes.com/learning/students/scienceqa/archive/950627a.html
 
Surviving Denali from NOVA Online
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/denali/
Follow the story of a medical expedition to Alaska's Denali (Mt. McKinley), which stands at the heart of the same worldwide mountaineering boom that sent flocks of untested mountaineers to Everest in 1996.
Related Websites:
2) Climbing (Mountaineering) from Adventure Handbook
http://www.adventurehandbook.com/index.cfm/72.html
3) Climbing from GORP http://www.gorp.com/gorp/activity/climb.htm
4) Climbing History of K2 http://www.jerberyd.com/climbing/stories/k2/index.htm
5) Mountain Zone http://www.mountainzone.com/
 
Information About Specific Mountains
African Mountains
http://www.newafrica.com/profiles/AllMountains.asp
This database identifies the height and country of the highest mountains in Africa.
 
Blue Mountains Australia
http://www.bluemts.com.au/tourist/default.asp
What's the weather like season to season? Who were the first explorers and why is the region called the Blue Mountains? Where are the Blue Mountains?
Related Website:
2) Blue Mountains History http://www.galactic.net.au/bushwalking/parks/BlueMountains/history.html
 
British Mountains
http://www.mountains.freeuk.com/
Learn about Britain's highest mountains.
 
Caledonian-Applachian Sediment Deposition by J. Patchett
http://www.geo.arizona.edu/news/Sp99/caled.html
A team of researchers have discovered that sediments from the Caledonian-Appalachian mountain system were deposited over the entire North American continent 450 million years ago, and dominated the sedimentary system until 150 million years ago.
 
Eastern Himalaya from National Geographic
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/wildworld/himalaya/index.html
The Eastern Himalaya are rich with some of the world’s most diverse temperate forests and are home to many of the world’s rarest animals&emdash;tigers, clouded leopards, and red pandas.
 
Everest from NOVA Online
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/everest/
The site is an intensive look at the personalities, dangers, history, culture, and lore surrounding the world's highest mountain.
Related Websites:
2) Everest from the Museum of Science, Boston http://www.mos.org/Everest/home.htm
3) Everest 2000 from Mountain Zone http://classic.mountainzone.com/everest/2000/intro.html
4) Everest: Measure of a Mountain from National Geographic
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/everest/index2.html
5) Everest: Roof of the World
http://www.thetech.org/exhibits_events/online/everest/home.htm
6) Mount Everest: An Accident of Geology from Franklin Institute
http://sln.fi.edu/qa98/spotlight4/index.html
 
Geology of Rocky Mountain National Park from National Park Service
http://www.aqd.nps.gov/grd/parks/romo/
This site explains that the mountains were the culmination of several geologic events: the formation of the rocks through hundreds of millions of years, the repeated uplift of the mountains by gigantic tectonic forces, and millions of years of erosion by water and ice that sculpted the mountains into their present forms.
Related Websites:
2) Rocky Mountain Region: Alberta, Canada http://raysweb.net/specialplaces/pages/mountain.html
3) Mountain Nature by W. Cameron http://www.mountainnature.com/
4) Rocky Mountain Conifers from Nearctica http://www.nearctica.com/trees/conifer/places/rockies.htm
5) Rocky Mountain Geology from Mountain Nature http://www.mountainnature.com/Geology/
6) Rocky Mountain National Park from Wildlife Watcher http://wildlifewatcher.com/mt/rocky.phtml
7) Rocky Mountain National Park, Colorado http://www.explore-rocky.com/
8) Wildlife of the Rocky Mountains http://raysweb.net/wildlife/index.html
9) 'Unofficial' Rocky Mountain National Park Home Page
http://www.estes.on-line.com/rmnp/
 
Great Smoky Mountains National Park
http://www.imagesbuilder.com/gsmnp/index.html
The Great Smoky Mountains, the majestic climax of the Appalachian Highlands, are a wildlands sanctuary preserving the world's finest examples of temperate deciduous forest.
Related Website:
2) Smoky Mountain National Park Travel Guide http://www.smokiesguide.com/index.html
 
Karakoram
http://www.adventurephotographs.com/karakoram/index.asp
The Karakoram mountains of Pakistan mark the western end of the greater Himalayan mountain chain and contain the greatest concentration of high peaks on earth as well as the largest expanse of glacial ice outside the polar regions.
 
Mountain Guide from Banff, Jasper, Kootenay, Yoho, Mount Revelstoke, and Glacier National Parks
http://www.worldweb.com/parkscanada-banff/Guide/
Discover the unique nature and culture of Canada’s mountain national parks.
 
Scotland's Mountains by G. Shaw
http://www.users.zetnet.co.uk/gshaw/mountains.htm
This is a photo collection of the the North West Highlands or the Cairngorms.
 
Southern Appalachian Mountains from The Moonlit Road
http://www.themoonlitroad.com/members/archives/mother/mother_cbg002.html
Two of the most prominent Appalachian ranges can be found in the Southern United States; the Great Smoky Mountains in Tennessee and North Carolina and the Blue Ridge Mountains, stretching from Pennsylvania to Georgia.
 
Websites For Teachers
Contour Maps With DOGSTAILS (Grades 6-8) from National Geographic
http://www.nationalgeographic.com/xpeditions/lessons/01/g68/dogstails.html
During this lesson, students will craft miniature mountains from lumps of clay. They will then translate their mountains into topographic maps.
 
Mount Everest
http://www.newton.mec.edu/Angier/DimSum/Mt.%20Everest%20Lesson.html
In this four part activity, students learn information about Mount Everest, participate in a critical thinking, cooperative learning exercise, work on a mapping activity and color in the flag of Nepal.
 
Mountain Environment from Educate the Children
http://www.educate.org.uk/teacher_zone/classroom/geography/unit15.htm
This unit encourages children to investigate other places in the UK, Europe and further afield that share a similar physical environment.
 
Mountains: A Drama Exploration (Grade 3-4) from ArtsEdge
http://artsedge.kennedy-
center.org/teaching_materials/curricula/curriculum.cfm?curriculum_id=133&mode=overview
Students will use creative dramatics to demonstrate an understanding of three ways a mountain can be formed. Students will also explore the affects of elevation on plant and animal life and on weather in the regions on both sides of a mountain, and how mountains are formed, through creative drama.
 
On-Line Mountain Environment Activities
http://www.math.montana.edu/%7Enmp/materials/ess/mountain_environments/
Learners will explore on-line resources that provide current mountain environment information.
 
mountain
volcanic activity
folded strata
fault-block
dome building
erosion
water
elevation
peak
clouds
plateau
wind
treeline
avalanche
volcano
river
mining
climbing
glacier
box canyon
terrace farming
climbing
altitude sickness
lake
mountain lion
trees & forest
waterfall
tundra
earthquake
summit
foothill
montane zone
snow
alpine
subalpine
orogeny
plate tectonics
valley
continental divide
uplift
'mountain men'
mountain range
 
 
Created by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 5/02.