The Topic:
Calligraphy

Easier - Calligraphy is the art of making beautiful or elegant handwriting. It is a fine art of skilled penmanship.
 
Harder - The word calligraphy literally means beautiful writing. Before the invention of the printing press some 500 years ago, it was the way books were made. Each copy was handwritten out by a scribe working in a scriptorium. The hand writing was done with quill and ink onto materials like vellum or parchment. The lettering style applied was one of the period bookhands like rustic, carolingian, blackletter, etc.
 
Today, there are three main types or styles of calligraphy: (1) Western or Roman, (2) Arabic, and (3) Chinese or Oriental. This project focuses mainly on Western calligraphy with a glimpse at the other two styles.
 
Calligraphy, Lettering and Typeface Design by J. Waters
http://www.calligraphersguild.org/julian.html
Noted calligrapher and designer Julian Waters delivered this lecture at Washington's Sidwell Friends School, where he was the 1997 Rubenstein Memorial Guest Artist.
Other Online Articles on Calligraphy:
2) Art of Letters by M. Freeman from Reading Today
http://www.reading.org/publications/rty/archives/02june_writing.html
3) Calligraphy http://www.cbbag.ca/Calligraphy.html
4) Calligraphy by J. Stevens from Calligraphy Centre http://www.calligraphycentre.com/cc1.html
5) Computer Aided Calligraphy: A Contradiction of Terms? by G. Thomson
http://dspace.dial.pipex.com/georgethomson/page2.html
 
History of Calligraphy
http://papa.essortment.com/calligraphyhist_reyt.htm
This article summarizes the origins and history of calligraphy, beginning with the prehistoric cave paintings.
Other Websites on the History of Calligraphy:
2) European Calligraphy from Encyclopedia.com
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/calligra_EuropeanCalligraphy.asp
3) History of Calligraphy http://people.westminstercollege.edu/students/nla5489/history.html
4) Making Marks: the Evolution of Calligraphy http://jacquelineoriginals.com/writingt.htm
5) Revival of Calligraphy (19th and 20th Centuries) from Encyclopaedia Britannica
http://www.britannica.com/eb/article?eu=119419&tocid=53216&query=revival
%20of%20calligraphy
6) Story of Writing and The History of Calligraphy (Book review)
http://www.proseandletters.com/BookReviewsPages/StoryofWriting.html
 
Primer in Calligraphy and Illumination
http://home.swipnet.se/~w-49954/English/callig/
This website is a short primer in the arts of calligraphy and illumination for those who are interested in learning how to make scrolls.
Other Online Calligraphy Instruction:
2) Calligraphy 101 from Scribeworx http://scribeworx.tripod.com/intro.html
3) Calligraphy Lessons On-Line from Calli-Graphic II http://www.vaxxine.com/mikwit/lessons/index.htm
4) Calligraphy, The Art of Beautiful Writing http://members.aol.com/artzylady/Lesson.html
5) Flourish by C. Fearon http://www.geocities.com/Paris/LeftBank/6176/flourish.html
6) Free Easy Calligraphy Lessons from The Calligraphy Company
http://www.calligraphy.co.uk/brand3.html
7) Getting Started in Calligraphy from Calligraphy Centre http://www.calligraphycentre.com/begin.html
8) Learn How To Draw Beautiful Lettering by C. McGavren
http://cmcgavren.home.sprynet.com/chiselpt.html
9) Lesson 1 from Scribeworx http://members.tripod.com/~scribeworx/lesson01a.html
10) On-Line Calligraphy Lesson http://www.studioarts.net/calligraphy/lesson.htm
11) Tips and Techniques http://members.aol.com/artzylady/tip1.html
12) Video Clips from Calligraphy Centre http://www.calligraphycentre.com/demopage.html
 
World of Calli & Graphy
http://www.colorsofindia.com/calligraphy/open.html
Create beautiful letters with the art of calligraphy! Learn about its history, check out the gallery, or learn about the parts and strokes that make up the letters.
  
First, explore several of the calligraphy websites. Then complete one or more of these related projects.
 
Try The Double Pencil Technique. Find the instructions for this at Double Pencil Technique by Seshat from Suite 101.
 
Practice Calligraphy Online. Use the interactive Calligraphy Lesson by G. Booth, Yale University.
 
Plan, Organize, and Hold A Calligraphy Fair. Start planning early, select a date, and location. Then plan events for your Calligraphy Fair. See if you have calligraphy experts in your area who would be willing to contribute their time and expertise, display their work, demonstrate techniques, recommend tools, etc. Promote your event through the media and your school and library. Have some fun. Plan snacks and activities - maybe some calligraphy punch or calligraphy pretzels (whatever that is, be creative).
 
Do You Calligraphy? Learn to. Use the lesson and the tips and techniques websites to get you started. Also check out some calligraphy books from the library media center. Practice every day, keep your work, note your improvement.
 
Make A Calligraphy Project. Select a favorite quote or short poem and create a calligraphy art piece focusing on it. You might create a unique greeting card incorporating the work or design it for framing.
 
Keep A Calligraphy Journal. Include techniques and tips that you learn as you go. Be sure to include samples of your skill with each journal entry.
 
More Websites
Calligraphy Ring
http://www.studioarts.net/calligring/index.html
Click on "Join" within the navigational link visit the sites of this webring as a guest - - or you can join as a member.
 
Calligraphy Glossary from Speedball
http://www.speedballart.com/glossary.pdf
Download and printout this helpful worksheet on calligraphy terminology.
Other Useful Documents from Speedball:
2) Lettering Charts http://www.speedballart.com/letteringcharts.pdf
 
Few of Our Favorite Things from Cyberscribes
http://www.calligraph.com/cyberscribes//cyberscribesfavo.html
Cyberscribes from around the world share their list of favorite tools, inks, papers, etc.
Related Site from Cyberscribes:
2) Pearls of Wisdom http://www.calligraph.com/cyberscribes//cspearlsofwisdom.html
Other Techniques and Tips Sites:
3) Notes on Calligraphy by J. Aikmon http://www.meridies.org/as/dmir/ScribalArts/0602.html
 
Gothic? Letters
http://catalog.com/gallery/Gothicx.html
This webpage provides examples of gothic alphabets.
 
How do Lefthanders Learn Calligraphy
http://www.bucilla.com/faqDetail.asp?faqID=789
This website explains the two exceptions for southpaws (lefties) in the four rules of calligraphy.
 
How To Cut a Bamboo Pen by W. Dunham
http://catalog.com/gallery/Pen.html
Reed pens have been used for centuries. Today, they are still used for calligraphy that needs a broad-edged, flexible pen. This site provides instructions for making your own reed pens.
Related Website:
2) Cutting a Quill Pen http://www.regia.org/quill2.htm
  
On an Ancient Appearance by E. Boucher
http://www.geocities.com/CollegePark/Library/2036/periodcallig.html
Here are some suggested ways to make your calligraphy look less modern.
 
Early Manuscripts & Documents
Age of King Charles V (1338-1380) from The Bibliothèque Nationale de France
http://www.bnf.fr/enluminures/aaccueil.htm
This site can be searched by text, theme or manuscript and contains 1,000 French illuminations from the 14th century.
 
Book of Kells from Oregon State Library
http://www.osl.state.or.us/lib/kells/bk.htm
This online exhibit provides images of the Book of Kells, a handwritten gospel manuscript.
Related Websites:
2) Book of Kells http://www.esotericart.com/fringe/art/symbolic/BookKell/kells.htm
3) Book of Kells from The Catholic Encyclopedia
http://www.newadvent.org/cathen/08614b.htm
4) Book of Kells Images http://www.dubois.ws/people/paul/kells/
 
Lindisfarne Gospels from The British Library
http://www.bl.uk/collections/treasures/lindis.html
The Lindisfarne Gospels is one of Britain's greatest artistic treasures. Written and illuminated in honor of God and St. Cuthbert about AD 698 by the monk Eadfrith, afterwards Bishop of Lindisfarne, it is famous for the superb quality and intricate design of its decorated pages.
Related Sites:
2) Lindisfarne Gospels http://www.durham.anglican.org/reference/lindisfarne/
3) Lindisfarne Gospels from BBC http://www.bbc.co.uk/tyne/features/gospels/index.shtml
 
DScriptiorium from Brigham Young University
http://www.byu.edu/~hurlbut/dscriptorium/
This digital collection is devoted to collecting, storing and distributing digital images of Medieval manuscripts.
 
Early Manuscripts at Oxford University
http://image.ox.ac.uk/
Beginning with collections of Celtic manuscripts from several Oxford libraries (9th to the 19th centuries of Irish, Welsh, Cornish and Breton origin), this project was extended to include a broader range (dating from the 9th to the 16th centuries and of various origins).
 
Images from Medieval and Renaissance Manuscripts
http://www.columbia.edu/cu/libraries/indiv/rare/images/date.html
This collection contains manuscript images in a broad range of styles from the 8th to mid-16th centuries. They are organized by date, then country.
 
Other Calligraphy Styles
Arabic Writing and Calligraphy (See also: Islamic calligraphy below)
http://www.sfusd.k12.ca.us/schwww/sch618/Calligraphy/Islam_Arabic_Calligraphy.html
Explore the history of this writing form and some of the unique styles and works done in Arabic. calligraphy.
Related Websites:
2) Arabic Calligraphy http://www.islamicart.com/main/calligraphy/index.html
3) Arabic Calligraphy http://arabiccalligraphy.com/
4) Arabic Calligraphy from Encyclopedia.com
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/calligra_ArabicCalligraphy.asp
5) Arabic Calligraphy Instruction by M. Sakkal http://www.sakkal.com/instrctn/Instruction.html
6) Art of Arabic Calligraphy by M. Sakkal http://www.sakkal.com/ArtArabicCalligraphy.html
7) History of Calligraphy http://www.ottomansouvenir.com/Calligraphy/Calligraphy.htm
8) Learn the Arabic Alphabet
http://courses.washington.edu/arabic/lecture-notes/lessons-powerpoint/
 
Art of Chinese Calligraphy by M.L. Pei
http://www.chinapage.com/callig1.html
This website provides examples of various styles and famous artists' works.
Related Websites:
2) Calligraphy from Asiawind Art Gallery http://www.asiawind.com/art/callig/Default.htm
3) Chinese Calligraphy http://artsedge.kennedy-center.org/nso/asian/culture/callig.html
 
Asian Calligraphy by D. Jones
http://www.net-quest.com/~derek/callig/callig.htm
Here is a collection of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean calligraphy information and links to websites.
Related Website:
2) Asian Calligraphy from Encyclopedia.com
http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/section/calligra_AsianCalligraphy.asp
 
Islamic Calligraphy with Mohamed Zakariya (See also: Arabic calligraphy above)
http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/islamic_medical/calligraphy/calligraphy.html
In the Islamic tradition, the writing has a different aspect involving the many connections made between the letters.
Related Websites:
2) Art of Calligraphy by A.F. Hasan from Suite 101
http://www.suite101.com/article.cfm/arabic_islamic_architecture/28162
3) Islamic Calligraphy http://islamicity.com/Culture/Calligraphy/default.HTM
 
Japanese Calligraphy by G. Hawker
http://metrotel.co.uk/ohmori/intro1.html
Here you can read a short history of Japan's calligraphy, or sho, and learn what makes good vs. bad work.
Related Websites:
2) Calligraphy (Exhibit) from Kyoto National Museum http://www.kyohaku.go.jp/meihin/mhind5e.htm
3) Calligraphy Stories from Kyoto National Museum http://www.kyohaku.go.jp/mus_dict/hddc5e.htm
4) It's a Shodo's Room http://markun.cs.shinshu-u.ac.jp/japan/shodou/index-e.html
5) What is Shodo http://www.jinjapan.org/kidsweb/virtual/shodo/shodo.html
 
Zhongwen.com
http://www.zhongwen.com/
Here is a combination Chinese-English dictionary and a character genealogy website. Entering an English word will bring up its character, definition, and relation to other characters.
Not-To-Be-Missed Section:
2) How to Write Chinese Characters http://zhongwen.com/shufa/index.html
Related Website:
3) Animated Chinese Characters http://www.ocrat.com/chargif/
4) Calligraphy Sheets (downloadable worksheets) http://www.wfu.edu/~moran/callig.html
 
Websites For Teachers
Calligraphy by B. White Skene
http://socialscience.tjc.edu/mkho/fulbright/1998/turkey/skene.htm
In this lesson, students will gain an appreciation of the various calligraphic styles, design their name in elaborate calligraphy, and explain several reasons for the purpose of calligraphy.
 
Chinese Calligraphy Lesson
http://www.newton.mec.edu/Angier/DimSum/Chinese%20Caligraphy%20Lesson.html
In this activity, students become acquainted with calligraphy and Chinese ideograms or characters.
Other Lessons:
2) Chinese Calligraphy (Grade 3) http://chesterfield.k12.va.us/Admin/Instructional_Technology/Special_Projects/Summer_
Camp97/elem/ancient/china/calligr.pdf
3) Chinese Calligraphy http://www.mcps.k12.md.us/curriculum/socialstd/MWH/11042_5.html
4) Chinese Calligraphy as Art Communication (Grade 6) by D. Tullmann
http://info.csd.org/staffdev/iecweb/callig.htm
 
Introduction to Japanese Calligraphy (Grades 2-6)
http://www.shorelineschools.org/departments/instruction/curriculum/evac/pdf/calligraphy.pdf
This lesson introduces the basic strokes of Japanese calligraphy by writing the Kanji character of EI (eternal).
 
Penning of a Class Constitution (Grades 4-8) by L. Mitchell from National Constitution Center
http://www.constitutioncenter.org/sections/teacher/lesson_plans/html/40366a.asp
This exercise leads the teacher and students within a classroom through the development of a workable classroom constitution and the penning of their document as a final product.
 
Write Me a Picture (Grades 8-12) by V.Y. Martin
http://www.lessonplanspage.com/ArtLAWriteMeAPicture-Calligraphy812.htm
In this lesson, students first view examples of calligraphy, then create their own calligraphic artwork.
  
calligraphy
penmanship
type
ink
alphabet
handwriting
fine art
paper
illumination
uncial
scribe
serif
sans-serif
ascender
descender
apprenticeship
Gutenberg Bible
insular
document
vellum
dip pen
reed
quill
pen / nib
script
ideogram
majuscule
miniscule
stroke
manuscript
papermaking
italic
cursive handwriting
black letter
drawing
lettering
font
symbol
book
letter
graffiti
cuneiform writing
"kalli"
"graphos"
pictograph
writing
papyrus
"fine writing"
 
  
 
Created by Lisa Brady, Galien Public Schools, Michigan, 11/02.
Adapted by Annette Lamb and Larry Johnson, 12/02.